Welcome back, dear dog lovers! In this post I am going to talk about one of my favorite breeds, the bulldog. I will give you the information about the desirable features to have in a bulldog.

The first mention of "Bulldog" as the distinctive name of this now national breed occurs in a letter, written by Prestwich Eaton from St. Sebastian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London, in 1631 or 1632, "for a good Mastive dogge, a case of bottles replenished with the best lickour, and pray proceur mee two good bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the name was derived from the dog's association with the sport of bull-baiting. The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog should pin and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The bull was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. As he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was necessary for the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of the old fanciers of the sport, to "play low." Larger dogs were at a disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those of smaller proportions, which were quite as suitable for the sport, were selected. The average height of the dogs was about 16 inches, and the weight was generally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was broad, muscular, and compact.

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact.

The bulldog head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square; that is, it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should not in any way be wedge- shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skull--that is, the distance between the eye and the ear--is very desirable. The forehead should be flat and the skin upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the "stop" between the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The expression "well broken up" is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression is well finished.

The bulldog face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews. The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this color should extend to the lower lip; its top should be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.
When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the lay- back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog from the side.

The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and breathing would then be stopped.

The upper lip, called the "chop," or flews, should be thick, broad, pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering the teeth completely. The amount of "cushion" which a dog may have is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not be pendulous.

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the tusks being wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project in front of the upper. The teeth should be large and strong, and the six small teeth between the tusks should be in an even row. The upper jaw cannot be too broad between the tusks.

The underjaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow the dog, when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen from the front, should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears, the nose, and each other as possible, but quite in front of the forehead, so long as their corners are in a straight line at right angles with the stop, and in front of the forehead. They should be a little above the level of the base of the nasal bone, and should be quite round in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and be as black in colour as possible--almost, if not quite, black, showing no white when looking directly to the front.

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the quality, shape, and carriage of his ears. They should be small and thin, and set high on the head; that is, the front inner edge of each ear should, as viewed from the front, join the outline of the skull at the top corner of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart, as high, and as far from the eyes as possible. The shape should be that which is known as "rose," in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or front edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the inside of the burr.

The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, muscular, and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be well arched at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep, making the dog, appear very broad and short-legged in front. The shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the body; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately, many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient in this respect.

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be quite round in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level of the backbone.

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong; set wide apart, thick, muscular, and short, with well- developed muscles in the calves, presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him.

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them. The ankles or pasterns should be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and turn very slightly outwards; they should be of medium size and moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and high.

The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should not be so short as those of the fore- legs. The hind-feet, whilst being smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, with the toes well split up, and the knuckles prominent.

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 lbs. The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, silky when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its closeness, but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction.

The bulldog colors should be whole or smut, the latter being a whole color with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure of its sort.

This description of the various show points of a Bulldog indicates that he should have the appearance of a thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he should be low to the ground, broad and compact, the body being carried between and not on the fore-legs. He should stand over a great deal of ground, and have the appearance of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, between the shoulder blades.

I hope you find this post useful and interesting. Do comment about what you think about this breed. Let us know about your own personal experiences with the bulldog.

Puppies Feeding – Taking Care of English Mastiff Puppies

Welcome back! In this article, I will share with you guys, the information about how to take care of your English mastiff puppies. The things I will discuss are puppies feeding and grooming to keep them healthy. In the last article I discussed about various physical features of an English Mastiff.

One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all other large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the puppies; so many bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps by lying on them. It is therefore always better to be provided with one or more foster bitches. At about six weeks old a fairly good opinion may be formed as to what the puppies will ultimately turn out in certain respects, for, although they may change materially during growth, the good or bad qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all probability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity. It is, therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in the nest than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten months old.

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never be tied up: they should be taken out for steady, gentle exercise, and not permitted to get too fat or they become too heavy, with detrimental results to their legs. Many Mastiff puppies are very shy and nervous, but they will grow out of this if kindly handled, and eventually become the best guard and protector it is possible to have.

The puppies feeding is an important matter, and should be carefully seen to by anyone wishing to rear them successfully. If goat's milk is procurable it is preferable to cow's milk. The price asked for it is sometimes prohibitory, but this difficulty may be surmounted in many cases by keeping a goat or two on the premises. Many breeders have obtained a goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of puppies on her milk, and have eventually discarded cow's milk altogether, using goat's milk for household purposes instead. As soon as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrowroot prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maize meal, about one quarter of the latter to three quarters of the former, make a good food for puppies. Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, soaked in good broth, may be used with advantage, but no dogs, either large or small, can be kept in condition for any length of time without a fair proportion of meat of some kind. Sheep's paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make an excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. In feeding on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain that the horse was not diseased, especially if any is given uncooked.

Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest days of puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will thrive; every effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of them.

With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, any large dog can be kept in good condition without resort to medicine, the use of which should be strictly prohibited unless there is real need for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions are far more likely to prove successful stud dogs and brood bitches than those to which deleterious drugs are constantly being given.

I hope you found this information about kaking care of English Mastiff puppies, useful. Keep coming back for more information on more breeds.


Hello dear dog lovers! In this post I will talk about and describe various features of the English Mastiff.

There is constant record of the English Mastiffs having been kept and carefully bred for many generations in certain old English families. The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from the Old English Mastiff Club's "Points of a Mastiff", is admirable as a standard to which future breeders should aim to attain.


English mastiff dogs are large, massive, powerful, symmetrical and well-knit frame. English mastiff is combination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility.


In general outline, giving a square appearance when viewed from any point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to length of the whole head and face as 2 to 3.


Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs wide apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a great desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance important if both points are proportionately combined.


Broad between the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. Brows slightly raised. Muscles of the temples and cheeks well developed. Arch across the skull of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up the sagittal suture.

The English MastiffThe English Mastiff


Short, broad under the eyes, and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose; truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the face, of great depth from the point of the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the end; canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide apart; incisors level, or the lower projecting beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to become visible when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely spreading nostrils when viewed from the front; flat (not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum, and slightly pendulous so as to show a square profile. Length of muzzle to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Circumference of muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before the ears) as 3 to 5.


Small, thin to the touch, wide apart, set on at the highest points of the sides of the skull, so as to continue the outline across the summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks when in repose.


Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space of two eyes. The stop between the eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Colour hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw.


Neck - Slightly arched, moderately long, very muscular, and measuring in circumference about one or two inches less than the skull before the ears. The chest is wide, deep, and well let down between the fore-legs. Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep and well set back to the hips. Girth should be one-third more than the height at the shoulder.


Slightly sloping, heavy and muscular.


Legs straight, strong, and set wide apart; bones very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and round. Toes well arched up. Nails black.


Back and loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks.


Hind-quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed second thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when standing or walking. Feet round.


Put on high up, and reaching to the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with the end pointing upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is excited.


Coat short and close lying, but not too fine over the shoulders, neck and back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn, or dark fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be black, with black round the orbits, and extending upwards between them.

Size is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of many dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three inches. The height should be obtained rather from great depth of body than length of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very undesirable. Thirty inches may be taken as a fair average height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less. The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its ultimate size, but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection of the breeding stock has still more to do with this. It is therefore essential to select a dog and bitch of a large strain to obtain large Mastiffs. It is not so necessary that the dogs themselves should be so large as that they come from a large strain. The weight of a full-grown dog should be anything over 160 lb. Many have turned over the scale at 180 lb.

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration by the breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of tempers. A savage dog with such power as the Mastiff possesses is indeed a dangerous creature, and, therefore, some inquiries as to the temper of a stud dog should be made before deciding to use him. In these dogs, as in all others, it is a question of how they are treated by the person having charge of them.

If you want to know about taking care of English Mastiff puppies, click here!

I hope you found this article about the English Mastiff useful. Do comment about what you think about it. Keep coming back for information about more breeds.